Enlightenment and political transformations in europe
Effects of the enlightenment
Unlike other terms applied by historians to describe a phenomenon that they see more clearly than could contemporaries, it was used and cherished by those who believed in the power of mind to liberate and improve. On the theoretical side of astronomy, the English natural philosopher John Michell first proposed the existence of dark stars in In France, the government was hostile, and the philosophes fought against its censorship, sometimes being imprisoned or hounded into exile. Enlightenment-era changes in law also continue to shape legal systems today. There is little consensus on the precise beginning of the Age of Enlightenment, but the beginning of the 18th century or the middle of the 17th century are commonly identified as starting points. While the Enlightenment cannot be pigeonholed into a specific doctrine or set of dogmas, science is a key part of the ideals of this movement. Official scientific societies were chartered by the state in order to provide technical expertise. This new way championed the accomplishments of humankind. They gave less power to the government and more power to the people. However, it was not until Antoine Lavoisier discovered in that sulphur and phosphorus grew heavier when burned that the phlogiston theory began to unravel. Although most modern interpreters incline to the latter view in both cases, there is still a case for the French emphasis, given the genius of a number of the philosophes and their associates.
The Scientific Revolution ended with Isaac Newton 's discovery of the law of gravitation and understanding of a mechanical universe in the late s. More commonly, however, women participated in the sciences as collaborators of their male relative or spouse. Religious tolerance:Though skeptical of religious institutions, many Enlightenment thinkers believed that people should be free to worship as they wished.
Scientific academies and societies grew out of the Scientific Revolution as the creators of scientific knowledge in contrast to the scholasticism of the university. Joseph was a proponent of enlightened despotism, but his commitment to modernizing reforms engendered significant opposition, which eventually culminated in a failure to fully implement his programs.
The concepts of liberty, reason and equality influenced early feminist Mary Wollstonecraft [mother of Mary Shelley, author of "Frankenstein"], American abolitionist Frederick Douglass and other seminal leaders.
Catherine established the Smolny Institute for Noble Girls to educate females. With the exception of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society by the Royal Society of London, which was published on a regular, quarterly basis, publication schedules were typically irregular, with periods between volumes sometimes lasting years.
The political philosopher Montesquieu introduced the idea of a separation of powers in a government, a concept which was enthusiastically adopted by the authors of the United States Constitution.
based on 45 review