Utilitarian and deontological ethical theories
In brief, deontology is patient-centered, whereas utilitarianism is society-centered.
It certainly seems that a bank robber could exhibit courage while robbing a bank, yet we generally agree that robbing is morally wrong. The full application of justice as fairness can be regarded as a 4-stage sequence.
Utilitarianism vs deontology debate
There are several varieties of utilitarianism. Thus, an agent has a duty to act in accordance with a moral norm, irrespective of the potentially beneficial effects of acting otherwise. For hedonistic utilitarians, the rightness or our actions are determined solely on the basis of consequences of pleasure or pain. Virtue Ethics:. Similarly, the practice of fundamental principles of autonomy and informed consent may be breeched in the care of newborn, mentally handicapped or patients in the permanent vegetative state. One main problem is that utilitarianism, if adopted, justifies as morally appropriate things that are clearly immoral. These two main ethical concepts rule almost all decisions made by companies nowadays. Deontological ethics is in keeping with Scripture, natural moral law, and intuitions from common sense. This approach to normative ethics also emphasizes moral education. We might say that parents, for example, have an obligation to take care of their children. Rather, at best, consequences help us determine which action is more in keeping with what is already our duty. Much of the modern medical ethics deals with the moral dilemmas arising in the context of patient's autonomy and the fundamental principles of informed consent and confidentiality. However, the downfall of this ethics system is not being justice-oriented. A few examples of utilitarian approach in medical care include setting a target by hospitals for resuscitation of premature newborns gestational age or treatment of burns patients degree of injury based on the availability of time and resources. In the other hand, utilitarian ethics state that a course of action should be taken by considering the most positive outcome.
For example, utilitarianism can be used to justify punishing an innocent man or enslaving a small group of people if such acts produce a maximization of consequences.
Peter goes to a bank and asks for a personal loan intended to be for investing in a new business that would generate a lot of revenue.
Virtue Ethics:. These are executed with furnished rules and guidelines.
The doctor-patient interaction or relationship is by nature, deontological since medical teaching practices inculcate this tradition, and when this deontological practice is breached, the context of medical negligence arises. Utilitarianism also called consequentialism is a moral theory developed and refined in the modern world in the writings of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill
Deontology vs utilitarianism nursing
This approach is usually guided by the calculated benefits or harms for an action or intervention based on evidence. Since the parties are all unaware of precisely what social role they will occupy, they strive to maximize their individual shares of primary goods. All individuals regardless of gender are protected by Title VII. Third, a moral principle is a categorical imperative that is universalizable; that is, it must be applicable for everyone who is in the same moral situation. Doing the right thing means to follow proper rules of behavior and, by doing so, promoting fairness and equality. These decisions are guided by preformed rules based on evidence and hence provide better guidance than act utilitarianism in decision-making. From a deontological perspective, utilitarians generalize the guidelines or rules while there may be exceptional cases where the guideline may not apply. Utilitarianism Utilitarianism states that actions are morally right if and only if they maximize the good or, alternatively, minimizes the bad. In maximizing utility and minimizing negative utility, in short it can be defined as pleasure minus pain. Virtue Ethics:. As we will see in Part Two, this notion is very difficult to justify if one abandons the theological doctrine of man being made in the image of God. The requirements of honesty, for example, require us to tell the truth, even if it is hurtful. There are two variants of utilitarianism: Act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism.
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